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It is also a major sporting centre, and in October 2015, was named 'Home of English Sport'.
The National Ice Centre, Holme Pierrepont National Watersports Centre, and Trent Bridge international cricket ground are all based in or around the city, which is also the home of two professional football teams; the former world's oldest professional league club Notts County, and Nottingham Forest, famously two-time winners of the UEFA European Cup under Brian Clough and Peter Taylor in 19.
In modern Welsh it is known poetically as Y Ty Ogofog and Irish as Na Tithe Uaimh "The Cavey Dwelling".
Nottingham Castle was constructed in 1068 on a sandstone outcrop by the River Leen.
In the sporting world, Nottingham is home to the world's oldest professional football club, Notts County, which was formed in 1862.
A short length of the wall survives, and is visible at the northern end of Maid Marian Way, and is protected as a Scheduled Monument.
On the return of Richard the Lionheart from the Crusades, the castle was occupied by supporters of Prince John, including the Sheriff of Nottingham.
The title reflects Nottingham's literary heritage, with Lord Byron, D. Lawrence and Alan Sillitoe having links to the city, as well as a contemporary literary community, a publishing industry and a poetry scene.
The settlement may predate Anglo-Saxon times, as hinted at in a Welsh tradition of an earlier Brythonic name being Tig Guocobauc, meaning Place of Caves (known also as "City of Caves").
A settlement also developed around the castle on the hill opposite and was the French borough supporting the Normans in the castle.